Where can i buy calcium hypochlorite online UK and Ireland

WHAT IS CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Calcium hypochlorite is a powder chemical with the formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine (65%) than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

  • Other names: Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt / Bleaching powder / Calcium Oxychloride
  • CAS No: 7778–54–3
  • EC No: 231–908–7
  • UN No: 1748
  • Appearance: white or grey/white powder with odour of chlorine
  • Molar Mass: 142.98 g/mol
  • Density: 2.35 g/cm3
  • Melting Point: 100oC

Uses for Calcium Hypochlorite

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR USE IN SWIMMING POOLS & SPAS:

Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. For use in outdoor swimming pools, calcium hypochlorite can be used as a sanitizer in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer. The stabilizer will reduce the loss of chlorine because of UV radiation. Calcium does make the water hard and tends to clog up some filters. However, some types of calcium hypochlorite do contain anti-scaling agents in order to prevent clogging up of pipes/filters. This grade of calcium hypochlorite can also be used in hard waters. The main advantage of calcium hypochlorite is that it is unstabilised unlike chlorinated isocyanurates such as sodium dichloroisocy­anurate or trichloroisocy­anuric acid. Latter products do contain cyanuric acid. If the level of cyanuric acid becomes too high, it will influence the performance of the chlorine.

Pools running on calcium hypochlorite should have a chlorine level of 1–2 ppm (mg/L).

Calcium hypochlorite is also used for bleaching cotton and linen and is used in the manufacture of chloroform.

For whitening in laundry one normally uses approx 200mls of 5% bleach per load. As the calcium hypochlorite is 65% chlorine then you will need around 15g of the calcium hypochlorite per wash. alternatively you can make a 5% solution by adding 77g of calcium hypochlorite to 1 litre of water and use 200mls of this solution.

Other uses are:

  • As a bathroom cleaner
  • For Cleaning secondhand items
  • Adds glow to glass dishware
  • As a Household disinfectant spray
  • It remove moss and algae from paths, patios and driveways
  • Use to sanitize garden tools
  • Kills weeds in walkways
  • Preserves and keeps cut flowers fresh
  • Can be used to Clean garden furniture,

Disinfecting drinking water with calcium hypochlorite:

Calcium hypo is used extensively throughout the world to purify drinking water and make it safe. you can either add it directly into water or make up stock solutions to use to treat batches of water. The first is better as stock solutions will deteriorate with time.

As a simple rule of thumb add 0.5g of solid calcium hypochlorite to 100 litres of water (dissolve the 0.5g in about 1 litre of water first and then add this to the 100 litres).

To read an article on how to disinfect water using Calcium Hypochlorite click here.

Health & Safety:

CLASS C: Oxidizing material. CLASS E: Corrosive solid.

R22– Harmful if swallowed. R38– Irritating to skin. R41– Risk of serious damage to eyes.

Where to Buy Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK

Where to Buy sodium dichloroisocy­anurate / SDIC online

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Fun things to do with Glycerine

What is Glycerine:

Glycerine (glycerin) is a sweet, colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is widely used in laboratories, industry, around the home, making soaps and cosmetics and umpteen other uses. As well as serious applications it can also be used for many fun experiments and below is just a few that you can try out at home, in school or even at work.

List of Fun experiments with glycerin

  • Making your own snow globes.
  • Creating giant soap bubbles
  • Preserving branches
  • Making Lip balm and Lip gloss
  • How to make glass disappear and reappear
  • The Potassium Permanganate and Glycerine Exothermic Reaction
  • Bread clay

Making you own snow globes:

What you will need:

  • Glycerine.
  • An empty glass jar with a leak proof lid. You can use a jam jar or a larger one if you wish.
  • A figurine, a toy etc Make sure that it is not going to be damaged sitting in water and that it will fit in the jar.
  • Water.
  • Glitter (any colour you like).
  • Waterproof glue.
  • Food colouring (optional)

Remove the lid from the jar and glue the figurines etc to the inner side of the lid. Set it aside and allow to dry fully.

Turn the jar, right side up and pour in a few teaspoons of glycerine. Then half fill with water, stir thoroughly to ensure that the glycerin is full dissolved and add the glitter and food colouring: Finally fill up the jar with more water to about an inch from the top.

When the glue has dried on the lid, carefully place the lid on the jar avoiding hitting the glued-on object from being damaged as it is immersed in the liquid. You should see some water overflowing from the jar which is fine as you do not want any air in the snow globe. Tighten as tight as possible. Turn your jar onto its lid and check that no water is leaking. If there is any leaking you will need to remove the lid and apply some glue into the groves so that it seals it properly.

Creating Giant soap bubbles:

This is a cheap and highly enjoyable way to make your own soap bubbles that will keep children and adults entertained for hours. It makes excellent entertainment at parties, fairs, days out in the park or just in the privacy of your own back garden. It is also a great experiment to try at school to help teachers explain the chemistry and physics of bubbles.

What you will need:

  • 5Litres of water
  • 500mls of good quality washing up liquid.
  • 50mls of clear glycerine
  • A bucket
  • A plastic paddling pool or other large shallow container
  • coat hangers or a hula hoop
  • For enormous bubbles you will need 2 bamboo canes, 2 pieces of light string (one longer than the other) 2 eye hooks, a pair of pliers and 2 or 3 fishing shot weights.

Make up the solution in a bucket by slowly adding and mixing the detergent and glycerine into the water avoiding too much agitation so as not to produce foam. For the best quality bubbles you should let the solution rest for a day or so. The glycerine is used to improve the quality and longevity of the bubbles.

For simple, smaller bubbles you can use virtually any object with one or more holes in it. Try using a tennis racket, a kitchen whisk, cake shape cutters, a bubble pipe, or just a piece of wire in the shape of a circle.

For large bubbles pour the soap bubble solution into a small paddling pool or similar. Use a hula hoop to produce the bubbles by laying it flat in the liquid for a few seconds and then lifting it out slowly. Hold it flat and then quickly raise it, tilting it towards you to produce the bubble. Alternatively take a coat hanger and shape it into circle using the curved end as a handle.

For the super sized bubbles take 2 bamboo canes and screw two eye hooks into one end of each of the canes. Tie a length of light string to each of the eyes and then tie a second, about 2/3 the length of the first string to the sames eyes. The length of strings can be as long as you like and the longer they are the bigger the bubbles will be. It is necessary to add some weight to the longer piece of string and this can easily be achieved by using a few small fishing shot weights attached to the centre of the string using a pair of pliers. To produce the bubbles dip the ends of the bamboo with the string attached into a bucket of the soap solution. Lift it out and pull the bamboo canes apart so that you have a triangular shape of string in front of you. Step backwards and as the air passes through the string the bubble forms. It will take some practice to get the perfect bubble but once you have mastered it you will have endless fun.

Preserving Tree Branches, flowers and leaves:

  1. Cut branches when colour begins to change, before the leaves are completely tinted. (Fully turned leaves are too dry and brittle.) Beech, oak, wild apple, mountain ash and copper beech are well suited for this method of preservation.
  2. Use a solution of 2 parts water to 1 part glycerine. The amount needed depends on the size of the branches. (The stems must be in liquid to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.)
  3. Trim off any small twigs at the bottom of the branch. Slit the bottom of each stem with a sharp knife to 3 or so inches.
  4. Next, bruise the stalks with a hammer.
  5. Arrange the branches in a container of the water/glycerine mixture and place in a cool room for a week to ten days. The leaves will last for years! Makes great centerpieces and displays.
  6. You can do the same thing to preserve flowers, grasses and leaves and any other vegetation that you want to display or just keep for fun.

How to make your own Lip Balm and Lip Gloss:

You can make your own lip gloss easily with a few basic ingredients including glycerine. Glycerin is used in many cosmetic products as it is a natural moisturiser helping to keep lips and skin supple and hydrated.

What you will need

  • Glycerine (1 teaspoon)
  • Coconut oil or beeswax (7 grams)
  • vegetable oil  (4 tablespoons)
  • Natural food colouring (optional)
  • Natural food flavouring oils used in cake making. (5 drops)
  • Microwave safe dish
  • Glass jar
  • Hand whisk

Place the glycerine and beeswax / coconut oil in a dish and heat in a microwave until a clear solution is produced. Carefully lift out the hot dish and beat the solution with a hand whisk until a creamy mixture. Add in the glycerine, the food flavouring and colouring if desired and continue mixing until all the ingredients are fully blended. Cool down and store in a sealable glass jar.

When choosing you flavouring avoid using alcohol based products and look for essential oil types. You can look for fruity, minty, vanilla flavourings which all work well. Other types of essential oils like tea tree oil and rosemary have healing benefits.

How to make a piece of glass disappear and reappear:

If you take a piece of glass and drop it into a beaker of water we can clearly see it but if we place the same piece of glass in a beaker of Glycerin it will completely disappear. Now if you warm the beaker of glycerine the piece of glass starts to become clearly visible again. Why?

A better illustration of this experiment – Fill up a small narrow glass bottle with glycerine. Half fill a glass bowl or large drinking glass with water. Immerse the bottle of glycerin into the water and you can see the bottle quite clearly. Now empty out the water, dry the bowl and half fill with more glycerine. Now see what happens when you immerse the bottle of glycerine into the bowl – the bottle disappears….now that’s chemistry magic!!

Everyone knows that when you place a pencil in a beaker of water the pencil looks like it is bent and distorted. This is because of a property of light called refraction. Refraction causes light to bend when it passes from one substance into another, in this case from air to water. Since light travels slower in water than in air, water is said to have a greater optical density and refractive index.

Similarly when the piece of glass is dropped in the water the light travels slower through the glass than through the water and we can clearly see it as easily as if it was sitting on our hand.

In the case of glass and glycerol, these two have very similar refractive indexes (approx 1.47) and light passing through both mediums will bend the light by the same amount and there is no change in the path of light rays passing through both the mediums. Because of this we cannot detect the presence of piece of glass in the glycerin and hence the piece of glass looks invisible for our eyes. When we heat the glycerine the refractive index of the glass changes and light passes through it faster as if it were passing through water. Now the refractive indexes of the glycerine and glass are different and the light is bent through the glass making the glass visible.

The Potassium Permanganate and Glycerine Exothermic Reaction:

Please Note – this experiment is potentially hazardous producing fire and gas and must only be done by experienced adults in a safe controlled environment, either in a fume cupboard or outdoors. Always make sure that a bucket of sand is at hand to control the fire if necessary.

The experiment illustrates the oxidising power of potassium permanganate and that glycerine is a carbohydrate, a good source of energy. It also shows how an exothermic reaction occurs creating heat and light spontaneously from 2 chemicals.

What you will need

  • A pestle and mortar
  • A ceramic dish
  • A dropper
  • Potassium permanganate
  • Glycerin

First weigh out about 10g of potassium permanganate crystals and grind up to a very fine powder. Wear suitable personnel protection equipment to prevent inhaling any of the fine powder. Then place in a small pile in the centre of a ceramic dish and carefully using a dropper place 5 drops of glycerine into the centre of the pile. After less than a minute smoke will start appearing as the reaction begins and all of a sudden it will burst into a bright purple flame.

Making bread clay:

Making bread clay is simple yet fun to do for children of all ages. It can be moulded into all sorts of sizes and shapes and painted.

what you will need:

  • 6 slices of white bread with crust removed.
  • PVA glue (6 tablespoons)
  • Glycerine (2 tablespoons)
  • Food colouring (optional)
  • Mixing bowl.

Break up the bread in a bowl and add the PVA glue. Knead the mixture until a uniform paste is formed. Add the glycerine and food colouring and continue blending. Remove the paste and cut into desired shapes either using cookie cutters or moulding into your own shape. Brush the shape with an equal mixture of glue and water for a glossy finish. Allow to dry overnight before painting with acrylic paints.

Where to Buy Glycerine BP online UK

Where to buy glycerine GR Grade


Is Acetone dangerous to use ?

What is Acetone

Acetone is a colorless and highly flammable manufactured liquid. It has a distinctive fruity or mint-like odor and a pungent taste. It is also found naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires, and as a by-product of the breakdown of body fat. It is found in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfillsites.
Acetone is used as a solvent to dissolve other substances, such as paints, varnishes, lacquers, fats, oils, waxes, resins, printing inks, plastics, and glues. It is used to make plastics, fibers, drugs, rayon, photographic film, smokeless powder, and other chemicals. It is also used for cleaning and drying precision parts.

Household and consumer products that contain acetone include fingernail polish remover, particle board, paint remover, liquid or paste waxes and polishes, detergent, cleaning products, and rubber cement.

How might one be exposed to acetone?

You can be exposed to acetone by breathing it, ingesting it, or absorbing it through your skin. Exposure can occur if you smoke cigarettes, or breathe second-hand cigarette smoke. You can also be exposed if you are exposed to isopropyl alcohol, which has medical and solvent uses, because isopropyl alcohol changes to acetone in the body.

At home, you can be exposed to acetone by using nail polish remover, household cleaners, paints, adhesives, rubber cement, particle board, or other products that contain acetone. You can be exposed by drinking water or eating food containing acetone. Exposure can occur if you live near a landfill site that contains acetone, near busy roads, or near other facilities such as incinerators that release acetone emissions.

At work, you can be exposed to acetone if you work at a facility that manufactures paints, plastics, chemicals, artificial fibers, and shoes. You can also be exposed if you work with paints, solvents, glues, and commercial cleaning products.

How can acetone affect health?

Exposure to high levels of acetone can cause death, coma, unconsciousness, seizures, and respiratory distress. It can damage your kidneys and the skin in your mouth.

Breathing moderate-to-high levels of acetone for short periods of time can cause nose, throat, lung, and eye irritation. It can also cause intoxication, headaches, fatigue, stupor, light-headedness, dizziness, confusion, increased pulse rate, nausea, vomiting, and shortening of the menstrual cycle in women.

Breathing highly concentrated acetone vapors can irritate the respiratory tract, and burn your eyes. Skin contact with acetone can irritate or damage your skin.

Exposure to acetone can also cause low blood pressure, bronchial irritation, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and an increased need to urinate.

What should I do if one is exposed to acetone?

If you breathe acetone, move to a place with fresh air. If the person exposed has trouble breathing, get medical help immediately.
If acetone is on your skin, wash with soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Take off any clothes or shoes with acetone on them. If your symptoms are very bad, get medical help.
If you get acetone in your eyes, flush your eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention promptly.
If you drink acetone, get medical attention immediately.

What factors limit use or exposure to acetone?

At work, it is best to have good ventilation. A mask can be worn for protection. Your manager or safety person can suggest the best protective masks to wear. Wear boots, gloves, a lab coat, apron or coveralls to prevent skin contact. Goggles or a face shield can protect you from accidental acetone splashes. Workplaces where acetone can be a problem should have an eye wash fountain or quick-drench system.
At home, limit exposure by staying away from cigarette smoke. Avoid solvents such as nail polish remover, paints and cleaning products containing acetone.

Click here to view msds for Acetone

Where to Buy Acetone online in the UK

How to use Acetone safely

What is Acetone

Acetone is a clear, colorless, low-boiling, flammable and volatile liquid characterized by rapid evaporation and a faintly aromatic, sweetish odor. It readily mixes with most organic solvents and mixes completely with water.

Common uses for Acetone:

  • Nail varnish remover
  • Nail extension remover
  • cosmetic products
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Laboratory reagent
  • Paint remover formulations
  • Solvent
  • Cleaner & Degreaser

How to use Acetone safely

Acetone, also called dimethyl ketone, is one of the ketone group of solvents that also includes methyl ethyl ketone. Mechanics, painters, and fiberglass workers are frequent users of acetone for various purposes in the shop, and many people are familiar with its pleasant sweet-smelling odor. Acetone is an excellent solvent for oils and greases. It is often used in the electronics industry for degreasing and cleaning of precision electronic parts. It is also used in the formulation of lacquers, rubber cements, cleaning fluids, and paint removers, as well as the manufacture of methacrylic and epoxy resins. Acetone can also absorb 22 times its volume of acetylene gas, which permits safe and economical shipment of acetylene in cylinders.

Acetone is one of the least toxic of the many organic solvents used in the work place. Its toxicity is low for both acute and chronic exposures. However, prolonged inhalation of high concentrations of acetone vapor causes irritation of the respiratory tract, headache, loss of memory, and in extreme cases, unconsciousness. Other symptoms of acetone intoxication include dizziness, nausea, or drowsiness. Continued skin contact may produce a mild form of dermatitis.

Control Vapor Concentrations: Acetone vapor in work areas should be maintained at or below the Threshold Limit Value of 750 PPM (averaged during an 8-hour workday), with a maximum Short Term Exposure Limit (defined as 15 minutes) no higher than 1000 PPM. For most operations, vapor can be kept at safe levels by enclosing the operation, by ventilating, or both. Opening windows or doors is often adequate for most small uses. Local exhaust may be needed with larger operations in order to capture the vapors at the source and keep them out of the breathing zone.

Wear PPE: Employees engaged in routine handling of acetone should wear milled butyl rubber gloves and rubber aprons for protection against skin contact. Chemical goggles should be worn where necessary. When complete face protection is necessary, a face shield should be worn.

Fire Prevention: Acetone is a serious fire hazard and can ignite with only a 2.6% concentration in the air. Water solutions of acetone are also highly flammable; a solution of 10 percent acetone in water has a flash point of about 80 F (27C). All sources of ignition, including spark-producing mechanisms or operations should be eliminated in areas where acetone is stored, handled, or used. Vapor proof electrical systems should also be installed (Class 1 – Division 1). Fire extinguishers for acetone fires include foam, carbon dioxide, and dry chemical. Water used on an acetone fire should be in the form of a spray or fog in order to prevent spreading the fire.

First Aid: If a person has inhaled small amounts of acetone vapor and exhibits any of the symptoms of acetone intoxication, they should be moved to fresh air and the effects will often disappear in a few hours. If large amounts have been inhaled, the person should be moved to fresh air and medical assistance immediately summoned. If breathing has stopped or respiration is weak; artificial respiration should be given. If splashed in the eyes, the eyes should be irrigated immediately with large quantities of running water for at least 15 minutes. An evaluation by a physician as soon as possible is recommended. Skin contaminated with acetone should be washed with soap and water, and any contaminated clothing removed.

Click here to view msds for Acetone

Where to Buy Acetone online in the UK

How to make Copper Sulphate

This is an easy way to produce copper sulphate either at home, at school or in a laboratory.

Please note: As you will be working with hot water it is important that children are supervised at all times.

Ingredients needed to make your own copper sulphate crystals:

  • Copper carbonate or black copper oxide
  • Sulphuric acid
  • a clean beaker
  • A conical flask
  • A glass rod
  • A tripod
  • an evaporating dish
  • Gauze
  • Filter paper
  • A funnel
  • goggles
  • Gloves

Instructions on how to make copper sulphate:

  • Using gloves and goggles add sulphuric acid to copper carbonate or copper oxide until no more dissolves.
  • You will know when you have added enough as no more gas will be produced.
  • Filter the solution through the filter paper in a funnel onto an evaporating dish.
  • Heat the solution gently over a bunsen burner until most of the solution has evaporated and allow to cool.
  • crystals of copper sulphate will start to form on the dish.

Notes:

Always wear appropriate personal protection equipment when handling sulphuric acid as it is very corrosive.

Buy Copper Sulphate

How to make Bordeaux Mixture with Copper Sulphate and Hydrated Lime

Copper sulphate Pentahydrate

calcium hydroxide

Copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4), is a common salt of copper. Copper sulfate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, while the hydrated form is bright blue. The archaic name for copper(II) sulfate is “blue vitriol” or “bluestone”. The most common form of copper sulphate is in the pentahydrate form and there are over 100 manufacturers producing around 200,000 tonnes per annum. Approximately three-quarters of copper sulphate pentahydrate is used in agriculture, principally as a fungicide, but also for treating copper-deficient soils. Two commonly used fungicide solutions containing copper sulphate are the Bordeaux Mixture and the Burgundy Mixture.

What is a Bordeaux Mixture ?

The Bordeaux mixture (also known as the Bordo Mix) was developed in the 19th century in France to control a downy mildew that caused problems on vines in the Bordeaux region of France. It contains a blend of copper sulphate and hydrated lime in water and is used to control different diseases on a wide range of plants and crops. It is used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungi. It is the copper ions in the bordeaux mixture which kills the fungal spores by preventing the spores germinating. As such, the product is only effective as a prevention and not as a treatment for the fungus after it has formed.

Among Bordeaux’s many uses are applications in autumn and winter to manage:

  • Fire blight on pears and apples;
  • Leaf curl and shot hole on peaches and nectarines;
  • Downy mildew and powdery mildew on grapes;
  • Peacock spot on olives;
  • Walnut blight on walnut; and
  • Black spot on roses.

How to prepare the Bordeaux Mixture:

Ideally solutions should be prepared fresh. The conventional method of describing the mixture’s composition is to give the weight of CuSO4, the weight of hydrated lime and the volume of water, in that order. The percentage of the weight of CuSO4 to the weight of water employed determines the concentration of the mixture. Thus a 1% Bordeaux mixture, which is typical, would have the formula 1:1:100, with the first “1″ representing 1 kg CuSO4 (pentahydrate), the second representing 1 kg hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide), and the 100 representing 100 litres (100 kg) water. As CuSO4 contains 25% copper, the copper content of a 1% Bordeaux mixture would be 0.25%.

For small-scale preparation: add 3 1/3 tablespoons of copper sulfate and 10 tablespoons of  hydrated lime in 5 Litres of water.

To make – dissolve the copper sulphate in half the water and dissolve the hydrated lime in the other half of the water. When both are fully dissolved, mix the two solutions together and stir well.

Please Note: it is important that metal containers in particular, iron, are not used to make up the Bordeaux solution. Use wooden or plastic containers.

Bordeaux mixture has been found to be harmful to fish, livestock and—due to potential build up of copper in the soil—earthworms.

Because Bordeaux can leave a blue-green discoloration on plants or painted surfaces, use it on dormant, deciduous plants that are away from buildings and fences.

How to use Bordeaux Mixture.

Spraying with Bordeaux mixture should be carried out before the season of spores starts. Typical usage solutions are 0.5% to 1.0% Bordeaux mix. Do not use solutions stronger than 1% as this may harm plants. Apply at 2 to 3 week intervals to give complete protection.

When applying Bordeaux, be sure to wear protective clothing, including goggles, because the spray deposit is corrosive, can permanently stain clothing, and is difficult to wash off.

Where to buy copper sulphate online UK

Where to buy hydrated lime / calcium hydroxide online UK

How To Change The Color Of Hydrangeas With Aluminum Sulfate

Hydrangeas are fascinating in that, unlike most other plants, the color of their flowers can change dramatically.

It would be nice if one could change the color of hydrangeas easily. But for most of us, it is not easy. The people who have the most control over the color of their hydrangeas are those who grow them in containers. It is much easier to control or alter the pH of the soil in a container than it is in the ground.

On the other hand, hydrangeas often change color on their own when they are planted or transplanted. They are adjusting to the new environment. It is not unusual to see several different colors on one shrub the next year after planting.

It is much easier to change a hydrangea from pink to blue than it is from blue to pink. Changing a hydrangea from pink to blue entails adding aluminum to the soil.

Changing from blue to pink means subtracting aluminum from the soil or taking it out of reach of the hydrangea. This can be achieved by first treating the soil with a phosphorous based fertilizer followed by a treatment of lime or calcium. the pH should be raised to 6.0 to 6.5 but never higher than this.

In order to change the flowers of the hydrangea from pink to blue there needs to be aluminium present in the soil and a pH of less than 7 ideally between 5.2 and 5.5 (Acidic). Only plants older than 2 years which are established should be treated. Before commencing treatment to change colour it is strongly advisable to water plants thoroughly every day for a week. Where possible test soil around hydrangeas for pH.

Add 15g (1 tablespoon) of aluminium sulphate in a litre of warm water and allow to sit for 15-30 minutes to dissolve. Add this to a watering can and make up to 5 litres with cold water. Apply the solution around the based of the hydrangea. DO NOT OVERUSE as making the soil too acidic can result in damage to the roots. Check the pH and maintain it between 5.2 and 5.5. Other simple things you can do include adding as grass clippings, coffee grounds and fruit or vegetable peelings to help lower pH levels. Potassium rich fertilizers will also help to achiev this.

Where to Buy Aluminum Sulphate online UK

What is Perfumers Alcohol and how is it used

Perfumers Alcohol is a special formulation which can be used by both professionals and amateurs who wish to make perfumes. It allows the simple addition and blending of essential oils and fragrances to produce crystal clear solutions.

Perfumers alcohol is also used in the production of DIFFUSER OILS.

The blended solutions remain clear and free from cloudiness.

The 3 main ingredients of perfumers alcohol are:

  1. Ethanol (denatured) –Alcohol which is the main carrier for the fragrance oils. This evaporates quickly as it is warmed by skin temperature releasing the fragrances evenly over the surface.
  2. Isopropyl myristate – used in preparations where good absorption is desired.
  3. Monopropylene glycol – a cosolvent which allows the fragrance oils to be solubilised in the alcohol carrier. This helps to control the evaporation of the alcohol so that it does not flash off too quickly.

 

How to use Perfumers Alcohol

Using these perfumery methods will help you take your homemade fragrances to a more professional level, in fact, if you use these techniques, you could actually sell your end result! The basic professional perfume making process is the same as the amateur perfuming process, but the materials are not.

  • Perfumer’s alcohol makes a great solvent for even the most resinous oils. It is what all commercial perfumes are made with, except some boutique brands that make roll-on scented oil or solid perfume.
  • Use different fragrance materials, not only essential oils. There are many more fragrance materials available other than essential oils. If you only use essential oils, you limit your perfume blending possibilities. It’s like wanting to paint a mural, but only having red and yellow paint.
  • In addition to essential oils, there are also absolutes, fragrance oils, and isolated aroma chemicals, all supplying scents that can’t be produced with essential oils.

Absolutes are stronger and smell more like the plant than essential oils, and are used extensively in perfumery. Some plants are too delicate to be pressed or steam-distilled; making an essential oil out of them is impossible. Jasmine is one of these plants. The absolutes are expensive, but a little goes a long way. They are much more concentrated than essential oils.

Fragrance oils, despite what you may have heard, aren’t merely cheap substitutes for essential oils. They are a completely different spectrum of scent, containing a combination of absolutes, essential oils, and synthetic aroma chemicals. Fragrance oils give you access to scents that you can’t get naturally, for example strawberry, peach, and watermelon.

Fragrance oils also have the benefit of being skin-safe (as long as you get cosmetic grade.) If you want to create an entire line of perfume and bath and body products in a favourite scent, you can use the same skin-safe fragrance oil to scent all of them.

Aroma chemicals are isolated fragrance molecules that are either synthetically produced or refined from plant sources. For example, the compound vanillin is what gives vanilla its characteristic odour and flavour. Artificial vanilla flavour is usually pure synthetic vanillin. Natural vanilla has many more compounds than just vanillin, which is why it tastes better!

Strawberry fragrance oil, one of the most sought-after scents in the cosmetic and fragrance industry, is a combination of strawberry aldehyde (Ethyl methylphenylglycidate) and other compounds to round out the scent.

Using Fixitives

Use fixatives in your perfume. If you’ve experimented with essential oils such as mint and bergamot, you’ve probably noticed that they disappear within an hour. This is because they evaporate quickly, aided by the heat of your skin.

Fixatives are a way to help make fragrances last longer. They are natural or synthetic substances that enhance scent and slow down the evaporation of scents that tend to disappear. Why do fixatives work? They are very high in scent molecule count, often with no distinct odour of their own. They just blend with the key fragrance and make it seem stronger.

For example, musk, a traditional fixative, can enhance the scent and make its perceived strength stronger. It only takes a small amount for a big effect – with effective use of musk, you won’t smell it, but the entire perfume will last longer and smell stronger. (Musks have been synthetic since the 1970s due to cruelty and endangerment laws.)

Plant fixatives include many resinous, sticky oils and absolutes like benzoin, frankincense, vetiver, and orris. They often have an earthy scent that “deepens” a blend. With a little experience, you’ll have a good idea of what fixatives can enhance and give subtle character to your perfumes.

As you can probably tell, using professional methods are not much more difficult than what you may have tried already. However, I must say that the techniques given here are more expensive than the home-brewed. They require the use of specialized, more costly materials.

Using perfumer’s alcohol and absolutes are only for people who are somewhat serious about perfume, but it is a fun, fascinating activity. It is definitely possible to get started cost-effectively; Many botanical absolute suppliers have samples that you can use at first.

It’s also a good idea to try absolute dilutions before going for the real thing. Dilutions will help you work with the absolute without becoming overwhelmed by the un-concentrated fragrance, and they are also less expensive. Most dilutions are 3% – 5% absolute in jojoba oil, similar in strength to essential oils.

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What is Cyclopentanone and what is it used for ?

cyclopentanone

What is Cyclopentanone

Cyclopentanone is a clear colourless liquid organic compound with a peppermint-like odour and is a cyclic ketone. It is a flammable compound with vapour heavier than air. It is produced from adipic acid by heating to 285–295C in the presence of barium hydroxide.
Cyclopentanone is an intermediate used in the production of rubber chemicals, insecticides, biologicals and pharmaceuticals.

Properties of cyclopentanone

  • Synonyms: Cyclopentanone; ketocyclopentane; adipic ketone; Cyclopentan-1-one; Dumasin; Ketopentamethylene; oxocyclopentane;
  • Formula: C5H8O
  • CAS No: 120–92–3
  • EINECS No: 204–435–9
  • Purity: >99%
  • Appearance: Clear colourless liquid
  • Molar mass: 84.12 g/mol
  • Density: 0.95 g/cm3
  • Solubility:almost insoluble in water (9g/L)

    cyclopentanone structure

  • Melting point: –58.2 C
  • Boiling point: 130.6 oC
  • Flash point: 26 C
  • Autoignition temperature: 445 C
  • Refractive index: 1.432–1.438
  • Relative vapour density (air=1): 2.3
  • Vapour pressure: 14 mm Hg @25C
  • Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: log Kow= 0.24 (est)

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The composition of cyclopentanone consists of C 71.39%, H 9.59% and O 19.02%. Cyclopentanone has a vapour which is heavier than air making it a dangerous environment to work in. The substance easily polymerizes under the influence of acids. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols, acetone, ether and most organic solvents. It reacts with oxidising agents like hydrogen peroxide.

Uses for Cyclopentanone:

  • Used in production of cylopentanone derivatives for use in the perfume industry eg Cyclopentylamine, Cyclopentanol and jasmine-fragrant material.
  • Manufacture of insecticides and pesticides.
  • Used in the production of synthetic resins and rubber adhesives.
  • Intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Laboratory reagent.
  • Used as a thinner for epoxies.
  • As a solvent it is used in paint and varnish removers, as dry cleaning agent and for oil extraction.

Health & Safety:

Symbol – Xi
Risk phrases: R10 Flammable. R36/38 Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety phrases: S23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapou­r/spray.
UN Hazard Class: 3
UN Packing Group: III

For full details see MSDS for cylopentanone

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What is Iron III chloride hexahydrate – what is it used for ?

Iron  III chloride hexahydrate

What is  Iron III chloride Hexahydrate

Iron III chloride hexahydrate, commonly known as Ferric chloride hexahydrate,  is a yellow or brown crystalline salt which is very soluble in water and alcohols. It occurs in nature as the mineral molysite. It is manufactured from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The anhydrous salt is then hydrated to produce the hexahydrate Iron III chloride . It is used in water treatment, copper etching, photoengraving, photography, the manufacture of pigments and ink and as laboratory reagent.

  • Other Names: Iron trichloride hexahydrate, Ferric chloride hexahydrate, Ferric trichloride hexahydrate,  Iron III chloride hexahydrate, Molysite, Flores martis,
  • Formula: FeCl3 6H2O
  • EEC No. 231–729–4
  • CAS No. 10025–77–1
  • UN No. 1773
  • Purity >97%
  • Appearance: Yellow / brown crystalline solid
  • Molar mass: 270.3 g/mol
  • Density: 1.82 g/cm3
  • Melting point: 37 C
  • Boiling Point: 280 C decomposes
  • Solubility in water: 92 g/100 mL @20C
  • pH: 2 (0.1M in water)
  • Vapour pressure: 1 hPa (1 mmHg) at 194C

Iron chloride is soluble in water, acetone, methanol, ethanol and diethyl ether. Iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis to give an acidic solution. The chemical composition of ferric chloride hexahydrate is Fe 20.66% Cl 39.35% and Water 39.99%. The crystal structure of ferric chloride hexahydrate has been determined from x-ray diffraction to show that in the crystals two chloride ions and four water molecules are arranged around each ferric ion to form octahedral [FeCl2(OH2)4]+ i­ons.

Uses for Iron III chloride

Iron Chloride forms a corrosive solution which is used as a coagulant in sewage and wastewater treatment and drinking water production. It is used to remove suspended solids and particulate matter from water. As a flocculant it has the function of precipitating heavy metals and sulfides, bleaching, deodorization, degreasing, sterilizing, dephosphorizing and decreasing the COD & BOD of effluent water.

It is commonly used as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards. Iron(III) chloride etches copper in a two-step redox reaction to copper(I) chloride and then to copper(II) chloride in the production of printed circuit boards. “Click Here” for instructions on how to make up etching solution.

Other uses include:

  • The anhydrous Iron chloride is a powerful dehydrating agent and is used as a drying agent in certain reactions.
  • Staining blades of swords and knives.
  • Etching the widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites.
  • For the etching of photogravure plates for printing photographic and fine art images in intaglio and for etching rotogravure cylinders used in the printing industry.
  • In the manufacture of pigments and inks.
  • Used in veterinary practice to treat overcropping of an animal’s claws.
  • Sometimes used in the technique of Raku firing as an additive during the reduction process, turning a pottery piece a burnt orange color due to the iron content present in the reducing atmosphere.
  • Used to test the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and other alloys.
  • It is also used as a leaching agent in chloride hydrometallurgy. Used in the chlorination of silver and copper ores.
  • Iron(III) chloride is used as catalyst for the reaction of ethylene with chlorine, forming ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), an important commodity chemical, which is mainly used for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, the monomer for making PVC.
  • As an oxidizer and mordant in dyeing and printing textiles.
  • In the construction industry it can enhance the unit strength of concrete when adding a little of ferric chloride solution to the concrete mix.
  • Used by American coin collectors to identify the dates of Buffalo nickels that are so badly worn that the date is no longer visible.
  • Iron chloride is used to make red-brown rosinates in varnishes.

Iron  III chloride In the laboratory

iron(III) chloride is commonly employed as a Lewis acid for catalysing reactions such as chlorination of aromatic compounds and Friedel-Crafts reaction of aromatics. It forms adducts with Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine oxide, e.g. FeCl3(OPPh3)2.

Iron(III) chloride is a mild oxidising agent, for example, it is capable of oxidising copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride.

When heated with iron(III) oxide at 350C, iron(III) chloride gives iron oxychloride.

Reducing agents such as hydrazine convert iron(III) chloride to complexes of iron(II).

Reacts with cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide in one preparation of ferrocene, a metal-sandwich complex.

Used in conjunction with NaI in acetonitrile to mildly reduce organic azides to primary amines.

It is used to produce Weigerts iron hematoxylin solution for nuclear stains and trichrome staining.

Health & safety R22 Harmful if swallowed. R34 Causes burns.

Safety phrases: S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. S36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible).

For full details see MSDS for Iron  III chloride hexahydrate

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Buy Ferric chloride 40% solution

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